Skala produkcji gospodarstw mlecznych a jej opłacalność
The Scale and the Profitability of Milk Production
Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW - Ekonomika i Organizacja Gospodarki Żywnościowej, 2004, vol., nr 53, s. 143-157
In years 1997-2001 in the typical family farms of the Central Macro region with the growth of production scale measured by: numbers of milk cows, milk production per year and commodity value of milk production with coupled production - the profitability of milk production and direct surplus from milk production grew. It is useful to intensify the milk production in those farms. State owned farms had from 42 to 173 milk cows. They achieved the highest direct surplus among the researched farms but average direct profitability fell to 2,41. In spite of taking into consideration the real indirect costs and the depreciation of farms' costs, the achieved profitability still gave the possibility of the growth of direct surplus. It means that a margin cost was higher than an average cost and simultaneously was smaller than purchase price, and that a margin surplus was higher than zero. The increasing of the direct surplus in these farms was possible but connected with a further decreasing of average profitability of milk production. Taking into the consideration the individual measure of the production scale and results received the direct profitability was the most negative correlated with the number of cows in the farm between 1997 and 1999: the index of determination was: 7,19%, 11,04% and 15,05%. Between 2000 and 2001 the direct profitability was the most negative correlated with amount of produced milk, which explained 13,47% and 11,36% changeability of the profitability of the production. The direct surplus in the analysed period was the most correlated with the value of commodity milk production and coupled production. Therefore when one wants to achieve high direct surplus from researched farms one should produce milk of the highest quality and also produce and sell with profit not only calves and defective cows but also farm heifers. In the analysed period the value of milk production and coupled production explained: 62, 30%; 66, 72%; 61, 97%; 90, 21 % and 86, 86% of direct surplus changeability.
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