Bogusław Ślusarczyk1, Karol Sołek2
1 Faculty of Economics, University of Rzeszów, 2 Accountancy Department, Institute of Agricultural Economics and Food Economy
Ślusarczyk, Bogusław; ORCID: 0000-0003-0567-8470 (Faculty of Economics, University of Rzeszów)
Sołek, Karol; ORCID: 0000-0002-1675-2085 (Accountancy Department, Institute of Agricultural Economics and Food Economy)
Economic Sciences for Agribusiness and Rural Economy, 2019, vol., nr 3, s. 131-138

Słowa kluczowe

entrepreneurship rural areas enterprise Podkarapckie province development

JEL Classification



The study is devoted to the diagnosis of entrepreneurship development in rural areas. The aim of the work is to analyze and evaluate the dynamics and directions of entrepreneurship development in rural areas of the Podkarpackie province as well as to identify changes and trends as well to present the strengths and weaknesses of rural areas in the studied area. On the basis of the conducted research, it can be concluded that the number of business entities in rural areas is systematically growing, and forecasts indicate further development. Assessment of directions and dynamics of entrepreneurship development based on the number of entities by selected NACE sections in 2009-2017 showed no significant variation in trends in all counties the trends are similar. The largest growth dynamics relat to communication and information services on, the real estate market as well as rental services for buildings, machines or devices, job market mediation, tourist services, detective or security services, maintenance of cleanliness and order, development of green areas, and office administration. In turn, industries such as agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing, wholesale and retail trade, vehicle repairs, financial and insurance activities were characterized by a reverse tendency - a systematic decline in the number of business entities occurred. The remaining sections of PKD maintained a stable, unchanging level.


  1. Bański, J. (2008). Wiejskie obszary sukcesu gospodarczego. Przegląd Geograficzny, 80, 2, pp. 199-222.
  2. Bryden, J., Hart, K. (2005). Why local economies differ: the dynamics of rural areas in Europe. The Edwin Mellen Press, Aberdeen.
  3. Czudec, A. (2007). Ekspertyza dotycząca województwa podkarpackiego. In: Ekspertyzy do Strategii Rozwoju Społeczno-Gospodarczego Polski Wschodniej do roku 2020. Vol. Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, Warszawa, s. 231–254.
  4. Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. OJ L 312 of 22.11.2008.
  5. Eurostat (online data code: env_wasgen). Retrieved: php/Waste_statistics [Access 05.01.2017].
  6. GUS [Statistics Poland] (2013). Ochrona środowiska 2012 [Environment 2012]. Warszawa.
  7. Janka, W. (2015). Historia gospodarki odpadami [History of waste management]. Zakład Gospodarki Komunalnej, Zielona Góra. Retrieved from: [Access: 09.01.2017].
  8. Kao, J.J., Stevenson, H.H. (1985). Entrepreneurship, what it is and how to teach it: a collection of working papers based on a colloquium held at Harvard Business School. The School, Michigan.
  9. Kłodziński, M. (2010). Mikroprzedsiębiorczość na obszarach wiejskich. Wieś i Rolnictwo, 2, (147), pp. 20-34.
  10. Kłodziński, M., Rosner, A. (1995). Wielofunkcyjny rozwój terenów wiejskich a polityka regionalna [Multifunctional rural development and regional policy]. In: K. Duczkowska-Małysz, M. Kłodziński, C. Siekierski (eds.) Polityka regionalna w rozwoju obszarów wiejskich. Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa, p. 117.
  11. Kukoc, K., Regan, D. (2008). Measuring entrepreneurship. Economic Roundup. Summer 2008. Australian Treasury, pp. 15-26.
  12. McClelland, D.C. (1976). The Achieving Society: With a New Introduction. Irvington Publishers. Business & Economics.
  13. Michalewska-Pawlak, M. (2012). Social and cultural determinants of entrepreneurship development in rural areas in Poland. Research on Enterprise in Modern Economy – Theory and Practice, 1, pp. 51-65.
  14. Program Operacyjny Rozwój Polski Wschodniej 2007-2013. Narodowe Strategiczne Ramy Odniesienia 2007-2013 [Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland 2007-2013. National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013].
  15. Raczyk, A. (2009). Metody badania przedsiębiorczości oparte na rejestrze podmiotów gospodarki narodowej [Methods for Examining Entrepreneurship on the Basis of the Register of Units of the National Economy]. Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja, 5, pp. 133-146.
  16. Schumpeter, J.A. (1960). Teoria rozwoju gospodarczego [Theory of economic development]. PWN, Warszawa.
  17. Shapero, A. (1975). The displaced, uncomfortable entrepreneur. Psychology Today, 9 (6), pp. 83-88.
  18. Stanny, M. (2012). Społeczno-ekonomiczne zróżnicowanie obszarów wiejskich [Socio-economic diversity of rural areas]. In: Raport o Stanie wsi. Polska wieś 2012. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa, p. 150.
  19. Timmons, J.A., Spinelli, S. (1999). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st century. 5th edn. Irwin McGraw-Hill, New York.
  20. Tudor, M., Voicilas, D.M. (2010). Innovation and real labour force in rural areas as a basis of future rural development. In: A. Fieldsend (ed.) Linking competitiveness with equity and sustainability: new Ideas for the socio-economic development of rural areas. University of Debrecen, Warsaw, p. 69.
  21. Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy w Rzeszowie [Voivodship Labour Office in Rzeszów]. Sytuacja na rynku pracy [Situation on the labour market]. Retrieved from: statystyki-i-analizy/sytuacja-na-rynku-pracy [Access 21.04.2019].